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A passageway or opening driven horizontally into the side of a hill
generally for the purpose of exploring or otherwise opening a mineral
deposit. An adit is open to the atmosphere at one end, a tunnel at both
TRAMWAY - A system for the transporting of ore or rock in buckets which
are suspended from a cable.
- A compound of two or more metals, usually produced by fusion.
A process by which gold and silver are extracted from an ore by dissolving
them in mercury.
The top or terminal edge of a vein on the surface or its nearest point
to the surface.
To test ores or minerals by chemical or other methods for the purpose
of determining the amount of valuable metals contained.
WORK - The amount of work specified by law, which must be done each
year to retain legal control of mining lands.
GRINDING - The process of grinding in a rotating mill which uses as
a grinding medium large pieces or pebbles of the ore being ground, instead
of conventional steel balls or rods.
- The initial lift or slice when commencing to stope or mine from a
- A piece of milling equipment used to grind ore into small particles.
It is a cylindrical shaped steel container filled with steel balls into
which crushed ore is fed. The ball mill is rotated causing the balls
themselves to cascade, which in turn grinds the ore.
- A metal inferior in value to gold and silver, generally applied to
the commercial metals such as copper, lead, etc.
- Solid rock forming the earth's crust, frequently covered by overburden
BIT - The
cutting end of boring instrument. In rock drilling, it is frequently
made with ultra-hard material such as diamonds or tungsten carbide.
- A hole drilled for purposes of blasting rather than for exploration
or geological information.
CAVING - A cheap method of mining in which large blocks of ore are under
cut, the ore breaking and caving under its own weight.
- Very rich ore, or situation.
- A working face, usually restricted to a stope.
- Metal in bars, ingots or other uncoined form.
- The conveyance used to transport men and equipment in a shaft.
- A rectangular plate of metal produced by electrolytic refining which
is melted into commercial shapes such as ingots.
CHANGE HOUSE - A special building constructed at a mine where the miner
changes to his working clothes; also known as a dry house.
- An inclined opening, usually constructed of timber and equipped with
a gate, through which ore is drawn from a stope into mine cars.
- A portion of mining land held under federal or provincial law.
- The term applied to the timbering or concrete around the mouth of
a shaft; also used to describe the top of a drill hole.
- A product containing the valuable metal and from which most of the
waste material in the ore has been removed.
- The long cylinder of rock, about one inch or more in diameter, that
is recovered by the diamond drill.
BARREL - That part of a string of tools in diamond drilling in which
the core specimen collects.
CROSSCUT - A horizontal opening driven across the course of a vein or
structure, or in general across the strike of the rock formation; a
connection from a shaft to an ore structure.
- A machine for crushing rock, such as a gyratory crusher, jaw crusher,
stamp mill, etc.
- A method of extracting gold or silver by dissolving it in a weak solution
of sodium cyanide.
- Is the underground work carried out for the purpose of reaching and
opening up a mineral deposit. It includes shaft sinking, cross-cutting,
drifting and raising.
TANK : This tank is used to process ore into gold in hard rock mining.
DRILL - A rotary type of rock drill in which the cutting is done by
abrasion rather than percussion. The cutting bit is set with diamonds
and is attached to the end of long hollow rods. The drill cuts a core
of rock which is recovered in long cylindrical sections, an inch or
more in diameter.
FLOTATION - A milling process using the flotation process, by which
concentrates are made of each of the various valuable minerals in an
- Waste of low grade rock which is unavoidably removed along with the
ore in the mining process.
DIP - The
angle at which a vein, structure or rock bed is inclined from the horizontal,
measured at right angles to the strike.
- A compass whose needle is mounted so as to swing in a vertical plane,
used for determining the magnetic attraction of rocks.
- Rock that has been folded or bent back on itself.
(DRIVE) - A horizontal passage underground that follow along the length
of a vein or rock formation as opposed to a crosscut which crosses the
- A rock drill used for boring horizontal holes for blasting.
- A building where the miner changes to his working clothes.
A pile or heap of rock or ore on the surface.
- The prospecting, diamond drilling and other work involved in searching
As applied to a drift, crosscut or stope, is the end in which work is
PRESS - This is used to filter out impurities out of gold.
- Almost pure gold. Fineness is the proportion of pure gold or silver
in jewellery or bullion expressed in parts per thousand. Thus, 925 fine
gold indicates 925 parts out of 1,000, or 92.5%, is pure gold.
- An extensive crack, break or fracture in rocks.
Pieces of rock that have been broken off and moved from their original
location by natural forces such as frost action or glaciers.
- A milling process by which some mineral particles are induced to become
attached to bubbles and float, and others to sink. In this way the valuable
minerals are concentrated and separated from the worthless gangue.
- The sequence of operations, step by step, by which ore is treated
in a milling, concentration, or smelting process.
- The wall or rock on the underside of a vein or ore structure.
- Ores of gold or silver from which the precious metals can be recovered
by concentrating methods without resort to roasting or chemical treatment.
A unit of measurement of magnetic intensity.
- The worthless minerals associated with valuable minerals in an ore
COUNTER - An instrument used in the search for radioactive minerals,
particulary uranium, as it is capable of detecting (by means of a Geiger
Mueller tube) the rays emanating from such minerals. It registers the
frequency or intensity of these rays either visually (by dial or flashing
light), audibly (by earphones) or both.
- The science concerned with the study of the rocks which compose the
- A grating (usually constructed of steel rails) placed over the top
of a chute or ore pass for the purpose of stopping the larger pieces
of rock or ore.
- The process of sealing off a water flow in rocks by forcing thin cement
slurry, or other chemicals into the cervices; usually done through a
diamond drill hole.
- Finances or supplies of food, etc.,furnished a prospector on promise
of some share in any discoveries he make.
- The timber along the sides of a shaft for the purpose of steadying,
or guiding, the cage or conveyance.
WALL - The wall or rock on the upper or top side of a vein or ore deposit.
- Rich ore. Selective mining of the best ore in a deposit.
- One who steals rich ore, especially gold, from a mine.
- The machine used for raising and lowering the cage or other conveyance
in a shaft.
- The rock containing an ore deposit.
- This describes a common method of mining in which water under pressure
is used to cut away banks of gold-bearing gravels or overburden. Water
is brought to the operation form a "head"; the water is then discharged
into a pipeline, at the end of which is a nozzle called a "monitor"
or a "giant". By using the water provided, the overburden can be cut
away to expose the gold-bearing gravels which are then sluiced, using
the water provided.
- A machine in which the rock is broken by the action of moving steel
An apparatus used in milling to concentrate ore on a screen submerged
in water, either by a reciprocating motion of the screen or by the pulsation
of water through it.
- Planks or small timbers placed along the roof of a stope or drift
to prevent rocks from falling, rather than to support the main weight
of the overlying rocks.
- A chute or trough for conveying pulp, water or powdered ore in the
A mineral deposit in solid rock.
a) A plant in which ore is treated for the recovery of valuable metals.
b) A machine consisting of a revolving drum, for the fine grinding of
ores as a preparation for treatment.
- The average grade of ore fed into a mill.
ORE - Ore that contains sufficient valuable mineral to be treated by
- An apparatus fitted with a nozzle and used to direct water under high
pressure in order to remove overburden or to break down gold-bearing
gravels in order to sluice them. Also known as a "giant".
- The starting place or origin of a metal. A vein which contains the
original metal "in place".
- A water-worn piece of precious metal, usually implying some size.
- A mixture of ore minerals and gangue from which at least one of the
metals can be extracted at a profit.
- Rock that has some type of ore present in its composition.
PAN - To
wash gravel or rock that have been ground in a pan to separate gold.
MILL - A grinding mill similar in construction and action as a ball
mill, but in which the charge is made up of hard pebbles in place of
the more conventional steel balls.
- An alluvial deposit of sand and gravel containing valuable minerals
such as gold.
- A group of buildings, and especially to their contained equipment
, in which a process or function is carried out; on a mine it will include
warehouses, hoisting equipment, compressors, repair shops, offices,
mill or concentrator.
- The surface entrance to a tunnel or adit.
- These are cavities in the earth, filled with ore, or a rich deposit
- A mining property, the value of which has not been proved by exploration.
A name for gold in the mining process.
- A hard, heavy, shiny, yellow mineral, being a sulphide of iron. It
is sometimes called "fools gold".
A vertical or inclined underground working that has been excavated from
the bottom upward.
The trend of an ore body along the direction of its strike.
SHELL - A component of a string of rods used in diamond drilling; it
is set with diamonds, and placed between the bit and the core barrel
to maintain the gauge of the hole.
- The percentage of valuable metal in the ore that is recovered by metallurgical
- The act of consolidating roof strata by means of anchoring and tensioning
steel bolts in holes especially drilled for the purpose.
- The sudden failure of walls or pillars in a mine caused by the weight
of pressure of the surrounding rocks, and accompanied by a violent release
- A rotating cylindrical mill which employs steel rods as a grinding
- A small portion of rock or mineral deposit, usually taken for the
purpose of being assayed to determine possible content of valuable elements.
A vertical or inclined excavation for the purpose of opening and servicing
a mine. It is usually equipped with a hoist at the top, which lowers
and raises a conveyance for handling men and material.
SCREEN - This screen filters out impurities in milling of gold.
A self-dumping type of bucket used in a shaft for hoisting ore or rock.
SET - A set of timbers used for support in underground mining, consisting
of cap, girt and post.
- An enlargement of a shaft made of the level horizon used primarily
for the storage and handling of equipment.
- Broken ore accumulated in a heap on the surface, pending treatment
An excavation in a mine from which ore is being or has been extracted.
An excavation underground for the purpose of catching or storing water;
the bottom of a shaft is commonly used for this purpose.
- Material rejected from a mill after the recoverable valuable minerals
have been extracted.
To haul cars of ore or waste in a mine.
- A type of measurement for gold. A troy is different than an ounce.
- A piece of milling equipment consisting of a revolving cylinder half
filled with steel rods or balls and into which crushed ore is fed for
fine grinding; the material to be ground is mixed with water or other
solution and comes out as a slurry.
- A horizontal underground passage that is open at both ends; the term
is loosely applied in many cases to an adit, which is open at only one
VEIN - A fissure, fault or crack in a rock filled by minerals that have
travelled upwards from some deep source.
As used in diamond drilling, refers to the placing of a wedge at some
point in the hole for the purpose of deflecting the bit in another direction.
A vertical or inclined opening sunk from a point inside a mine. Similar
to a shaft, but the latter starts at the surface.
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